In this post, we will show you the best spots to visit in Cairo, Egypt’s capital and most populous city. It is also a far more interesting tourist destination than the Giza Pyramids’ long shadow suggests. There’s a lot to see in a few days. Amazing mosques, historical landmarks, neighbourhoods, art museums, and bazaars…
So we’ve devoted this section to showing you the finest of and how to explore this fast-paced city. On the other hand, Egypt Exclusive can plan your whole trip, including flights, lodgings, meals, and cultural excursions. [ Check our Egypt Vacation Packages ]
Cairo, Egypt’s Islamic heart
Cairo is Egypt’s heart. It connects Upper and Lower Egypt, the Delta, and the Nile Valley. Across the Arab globe.
As the mainstream Arabic dialect, its leaders have historically played an important role on this geopolitical chessboard. For these reasons, it is not surprising that events in Cairo affect the Arab globe.
It is statistically and symbolically important. More over 8 million people live in this megalopolis, including the metropolitan area. Population: almost 21 million according to census.
In Cairo, housing is limited, prompting many inhabitants to migrate. To be with their ancestors or simply because there is nowhere else to go, many Egyptians live in the City of the Dead.
The city’s population has risen from 2 million in the mid-20th century to 7 million in the early 21st.
There are proposals to build a new administrative and financial capital near Cairo in an undeveloped desert area. Heavily influenced by environmental concerns, it is likely to be renamed New Cairo or Wedian.
The capital enjoys a Mediterranean climate, nestled between the desert and the Delta. As a desert climate (BWh), the temperature and rainfall are likely to be different than in your hometown: hotter days with low humidity or cloudiness. These are the city’s main weather features:
July’s highs vary from 35°C to 46°C.
It is 9oC on average in January but may drop to 1oC.
arid climates Day and night temperatures fluctuate by 15oC.
The Nile River’s influence raises relative humidity to about 65%, lower than Delta cities but higher than desert towns.
Protect your skin and eyes by wearing light clothing, keeping hydrated and packing a fan if you are travelling in the summer.
Cairo is a modern city, hence it has nothing to do with Ancient Egypt. Though near Giza, Memphis, and Heliopolis, this region was deserted until the Persian or Roman times. The city’s history must be understood before going on to the next section ‘Cairo: what to see, neighbourhood by neighbourhood’.
Iran & Rome founded Cairo
Cairo expanded considerably during Egyptian history. The Persian King Cambyses II (27th Dynasty) built the Babylon Fortress after conquering Egypt in the late 6th century BC. From then on, the Coptic and Byzantine empires depended on it. We recommend viewing this fortress in the Coptic Quarter, Old Cairo, under the section “Cairo: things to see”.
Arab conquest and Fustat
In 639 (year 17 of the Hegira), the Umayyad Arabs besieged and captured Babylon. A year later, between this fortress and the Nile, the commander Amr ibn al-As built the country’s and Africa’s first mosque, the Mosque of Amr. The ancient building is gone, but a new one built in the late 1800s remains in its stead. Egypt’s new Arab administration centred on Misr al-Fustat. So it is. Egypt’s Arabic name is Misr (), which may derive from the Akkadian word for “boundary”.
They’re all Qatta’i.
Earlier Egyptian dynasties built much in this area. From 750, the Abbasids built Al-Askar (‘The Army,’ with a governing palace.
One of Cairo’s most remarkable temples, Al-Qatta’i, includes a palace and a mosque. The caliphal-Muizz li-Din Allah of the new Fatimid dynasty of Shiites founded Al-Qahira (‘The Triumphant’) in late tenth century Tunisia.
In addition to Al-Askar and Al-Qatta’i, Many regard the al-Azhar Mosque to be the world’s first university.
Royal enclosure of al-Qahira, administrative centre of Misr al-Fustat till 12th century.
Cairo: things to see, neighbourhood by neighbourhood, describes what to see in this area.
Cairo’s Mamluk and Ottoman
Ayyubid dynasty ended with Saladin’s death in late 12th century, ending the Fatimid dynasty. This castle was erected in the Mokattam Highlands. Defensively, it was fascinating since it controlled the whole area. A governing and administrative headquarters, the Citadel was steadily expanded and reinforced.
Shawar had burnt Misr al-Fustat years before to deter the Crusaders from taking it. Hundreds of new mosques, public baths, madrasahs, and palaces arose from this restoration effort. His Mamluk military caste succeeded him in beautifying the city.
Mamluk Cairo remained a thriving city despite the 1348 epidemic and the Mediterranean ports becoming the new commercial epicentres in the 15th century. The Khan El-Khalili Bazaar, for example, originates from the late 14th century.
Cahors had been under Ottoman rule since the 16th century, but had kept considerable economic and cultural autonomy: it was a major coffee port, and Al-Azhar University had retained its enormous Arab prominence.
Napoleon to Today
A short mission, the Napoleonic expedition to Egypt (1798-1801) saw the revival of Ancient Egypt in Cairo. Destroyed artefacts and works, the military expedition’s Commission of Sciences and Arts helped build contemporary Egyptology.
In addition to the Egyptian Museum, the Giza Pyramids are a must-see for tourists Then Mehmet Ali rekindled interest in Ancient Egypt, a win for Cairo. The Saladin Citadel, for example, was a priority for him, as was industrialising Egypt and its capital. Ismail Pasha aimed for a clean, modern city inspired by the period’s orthogonal plans. As a result, it became the upper classes’ preferred residential area, becoming part of the modern city core.
Its belle epoque beauty and commercial and leisure offerings have made it a must-see in Cairo. In the city’s earliest neighbourhoods (Old Cairo and Islamic Cairo), peasants migrated in droves. The British ruled the city in the early twentieth century, and it was an important command centre throughout WWII. They had little lasting impact on Cairo, hence there are no notable monuments from their era.
As previously said, the capital flourished swiftly in the second century, becoming Africa’s largest metropolis. They kept Zamalek and Gezira, two Nile islands with some of Cairo’s greatest cultural attractions, out of the chaos. Heliopolis, in the city’s east, had the same.
With less congestion and population pressure, it also brings the capital face to face with one of its biggest difficulties.
Organizing what to visit in Cairo is easy if you know its history: Giza for Ancient Egypt, the Coptic Quarter for pre-Arabic times, Islamic Cairo for mediaeval and contemporary eras, and other neighbourhoods for more recent times (Center, Zamalek, Gezira, etc.).
Historic Cairo includes the Coptic Quarter and Islamic Cairo.
The Giza Pyramids, the Great Sphinx, and other prominent relics of the Ancient Empire draw many visitors to Cairo.
They are 13 kilometres from the city (Tahrir Square), but are in Giza. This page of our website expands its content.
The Coptic Quarter and Al-Fustat
Coptic Quarter is Cairo’s oldest district. This area developed following Christ’s death, when Christianity supplanted Egypt’s dying religion. Until the Arab invasion in 639, when Islam took over. The Persians built the Babylon Fortress here in the sixth century BC, and the Romans expanded it, giving it its unique red and white brick appearance. Some of its walls remain today.
Babel’s Castle Ruins
Thus the largest Coptic Cairo buildings. Remember that the Holy Family fled to Egypt to avoid King Herod’s persecution. Their beliefs left them with a little town and a river port, whereas Alexandria was the big city. For example, St. George’s Church mentions it (of Greek Orthodox worship).
The three biblical characters drank water from this well. These include St. George’s relics, a warrior saint respected worldwide.
The Hanging Church is a famous site in Cairo. In the third century, it was connected to a Roman fortification gate. It received its name since it hung from it.
Its original hanging qualities have been lost because to erosion caused by Nile river silt. Inlaid 13th century ebony with ivory altars and mosaics from different eras decorates its interior. Visit the Coptic Museum in Cairo Coptic.
Iconography absorbed all earlier symbols. Understanding the shift from ancient Egyptian and Greco-Roman paganism to modern Christian religion is vital. A few ancient Bibles and icons have been saved. The museum’s interior has latticework and wood ceilings.
The Coptic Quarter also has the Church of Saints Sergius and Bacchus (fourth or fifth century). In memory of two Roman Christian martyrs buried here. The Holy Family supposedly spent three weeks there. So, if you are a Christian, you must visit this church in Cairo.
Its interior has an oak coffered ceiling and marble and red granite columns.
Monastery of St. Mercury:
three churches: St. Mercury (10th century), St. Shenute (10th century), and St. (all founded in the fourth century).
Another Old Cairo temple is Ben Ezra. Despite its heritage, no prayers are held here. The original was erected in the ninth century by Jerusalem’s rabbi Abraham ibn Ezra. He did so because a Jeremiah-built synagogue had been demolished by the Romans.
As the city’s oldest sector, the Coptic Quarter has Islamic architecture nearby. A military outpost became administrative centre in early Muslim Egypt, this place became Misr al-Fustat following the Arab conquest. The commander Amr ibn al-As built the Amr mosque in 640.
It helped spread the new Islamic doctrine, although in fragments. Its interior is also available to the public when not in use for worship.
Ayyubids, Mamluks, and Ottomans were among the dynasties that controlled Islamic Cairo. A new settlement called Al-Qahira (‘The Triumphant’) was founded here in 969 by Calipha al-Muizz li-Din Allah. The Shiite dynasty that governed North Africa for almost two centuries had its ruins here. There are two additional ancient villages (Al-Askar and Al-Qatta’i) that travellers must see in Islamic Cairo. The Mamluks and Ottomans constructed new buildings and altered existing. So discussing Fatimid architecture is insufficient. Our adventure may begin in a late-10th century fortified city area. To accomplish so, we utilise Al-Muizz Street, named for Al-founding Qahira’s caliph. It has some of the most intriguing sites.
The Bab al-Futuh gate is quadrangular in shape, while the Bab al-Nasr gate is semicircular. Nearby lies Al-Hakim, a notable mosque in Islamic Cairo. The temple was named after Egypt’s sixth Fatimid caliph, Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah.
Napoleon used it as a barracks for a long period. Renovated recently, it now features a vibrant marble courtyard. The minarets are its oldest and most recognisable features. A few hundred yards farther along Al-Muizz street lies Bayt al-Suhaymi (see ‘Museums to Visit in Cairo’ below) and Al-Aqmar mosque (meaning’moonlight’).
This early 12th century building was one of the first to have a major stone façade and intricate design. Inscriptions on numerous Fatimid caliphs and Koranic fragments. His interior has been substantially modified.
Byzantium’s Sabil-Kuttab of Abdel Rahman Katkhuda combines the roles of a public drinking fountain and an elementary school. Bayn al-Qasrin (“Between two palaces”, although none are still standing). But it’s a great location with Mamluk buildings and a gorgeous facade.
For example, Sultan Barquq’s madrasa or Al-Nasir Muhammad’s madrasa-museum (late thirteenth and early fourteenth century). Sultan Qalawun’s late-13th century madrasa-museum follows.
It’s a large construction with plenty of marble panels and stones. A Mamluk-built duplicate of Jerusalem’s Mosque of the Rock.
You may travel left or straight. Traveling east, you’ll pass the Jan el-Jalili market and the Hussein Mosque. The brilliant colours of the fabrics, the sound of pounding brass, and the scent of spices from the food stalls all lure tourists to the Jan el-Jalili market. A place to practise bargaining, a requirement to buy here. The city’s oldest coffee shop located on Midan Hussein Square, one of the busiest in the old town.
The Al-Hussein Mosque is another must-see in Islamic Cairo. However, the current temple was built in the late nineteenth century. The Fatimid dynasty inherited the bones of Hussein ibn Ali, the Prophet Muhammad’s grandson and Fatima’s son.
So it’s a holy place for Shiites, but also recognised by the Sunni majority. On the other side of Sultan Qalawun’s madrasa-museum, you’ll find Al-Azhar Street, a twentieth-century detour from the old axis. The Wekalet El Ghoury is across the street.
It has a madrasa, a mausoleum, and cultural and folkloric activities. Early 16th century Mamluk building before Ottoman control.
It also overlooks Midan Hussein Square, but from the other side of the busy street-road of Al-Azhar. As you can see from the content in this section, Cairo has hundreds of mosques. But it is for many visitors.
Built in 970, it swiftly became an Islamic reference point once the Fatimid dynasty and Al-Qahira were established. A prominent site of prayer and study, it attracts thousands of Muslim students from all over the world each year and is one of the world’s oldest institutions.
Its Grand Imam is a Muslim spiritual authority.
Its structure is beautiful, including elements from the Fatimid and later dynasties, since each emperor wanted to personalise it. Here we may say:
In particular, the famous Barbers’ Gate is notable for shaven students. Other inner doors, like the one to the Central Courtyard, are also noteworthy. The Central Courtyard is distinguished for its whiteness and cleanliness, as well as its eleventh-century Fatimid arches.
In the mid-18th century, Ottoman function Object() [native code] Abd-ar-Rahman Katkhuda demanded that the Ottoman minarets be erected in the style of other mosques in Istanbul Prayer Hall. It has survived. It has three Mamluk madrasas and a 60,000-volume library, much of them manuscripts.
From El Ghoury and Al-Azhar, go south to the third and last extant Fatimid wall gate: Bab Zuwayla (1092), the famous southern entryway. The Al-Muayyad mosque has twin minarets. Above the old Fatimid wall’s Bab Zuweila gate, they provide one of Cairo’s best panoramic views.
Mamluks built it in the 15th century. Its inside is remarkable, with Mamluk sultan relics and a zigzagging dome. Other attractions south of Bab-Zuwayla include: Another prominent and unusual market is Sharia al-Khayamiya (Street of the Tentmakers).
In contrast to Khan el-Khalili, you can see how many local craftsmen labour, particularly in textiles.
Other must-see Cairo mosques may be located south. Sultan Hassan’s mosque-madrasa is another of Cairo’s top-10 Islamic temples. This Mamluk ruler erected it in the mid-14th century and used it as a fortification to protect himself. Napoleon had it in his sights, easily accessible from the Citadel.
Its huge main entry courtyard contains a magnificent ablutions fountain under a domed shrine. The Al-Rifai mosque, erected in the early twentieth century in Mamluk style, is almost comparable. Notable tombs include Farouk (the last Egyptian pharaoh) and Mohammed Reza Pahlevi (the last Persian Shah).
Both are on Salah El-Deen Square, which also houses the Saladin Citadel. Ayyb ibn Al-Dn, the Crusader-hater, erected his massive headquarters and command hub here in the late twelfth century. Successive kings have refurbished and expanded it.
Built on a ridge above the city, Napoleon’s French army conquered it during their invasion. The Ayyubid king used Giza pyramid ashlars to create it.
Saladin’s Fort Mughal-e-A
Despite being a military barracks until the late twentieth century, and numerous rooms being shut, the complex is one of Cairo’s most beautiful. Here is a list of actions:
The western terraces and the Al-Muayyad Mosque’s minarets are popular among city tourists. Clear days reveal the Giza Pyramids!
Despite its age (19th century) and Ottoman style, the Mehmet Ali Mosque is possibly its most photographed building. Its the temple’s lower front is covered with alabaster gives the mosque that name. Within is the Egyptian wali’s tomb.
Outside is an iron clock presented by King Louis Philippe I of France in return for the obelisk from Luxor’s temple.
Mehmet Ali spared Al-Nasir Muhammad Mosque from demolition to construct his mosque. The stunning green and blue mosaiced minarets of this smaller but older mosque originate from the 14th century. A lovely courtyard with Egyptian and Roman columns.
Suleymaniye Mosque: Constructed in 1530, this is Cairo’s oldest Ottoman mosque. Similar to Mehmet Ali’s and many others in Istanbul, it features a characteristic Turkish design of domes and semi-domes.
Military towers ring the perimeter of this military enclosure. The Blacksmith and Sand Towers stand out. They defend the citadel’s inside.
Al-Fustat Mosque is located immediately south of the Citadel. The Ibn Tulun Mosque is a historical and artistic gem that is frequently cited as a great example of its style. The Tulunids built Egypt’s oldest mosque in 879, under Abbasid influence (from whom they broke away).
In the helical minaret evocative of Iraqi Samarra. Its ablutions fountain in the centre courtyard is also strange. The exterior wall enlarges the enclosure, as was customary at the time. The space between the wall and the mosque used to be a market! As you can see, we gave the city’s mosques a lot of attention.
Several of them are depicted on Egyptian pound banknotes.
Most Cairo sites are in the Islamic or Coptic neighbourhoods, but the Center is the ancient marshland area northwest of both districts. Their architecture is evocative of French, Italian, and British cities.
Tahrir Square (Liberation Square) is the real heart of Cairo. The American University and the Egyptian Museum are close. The main boutiques are located in Talaat Harb Square and Qasr al-Nil Street.
To start the century, the Stock Exchange, founded by Italian-Slovenian Antonio Lascia, was one of the top 10 globally. There are renowned theatres and theatres on Shawarby Street that feature performances like belly dancing.
There are just a few remaining relics of the large Jewish community that contributed to the city’s early twentieth century boom but emigrated to Israel following that state’s creation.
Attractions in Cairo
Egypt’s Al-Azhar Park is a gem in a city not known for its greenery This new addition to the city was just opened in 2005. You may walk about and enjoy the views of the city from this park with palm trees and gardens.
Saladin’s 12th century Ayyubid fortifications have also been found. St. Simon the Tanner Church is one of Cairo’s must-see churches. It’s not in the Coptic Quarter since it’s 7 km distant. Its distinctiveness makes it perfect for a city-wide Coptic Christian path. Even though it is relatively young, its setting in the Mokattam Mountains sets it apart.
The Zabaleen, Cairo’s trash collectors, promoted the faith. In the rock, it forms an amphitheatre with an altar at its base. 10 000 people can fit inside! Middle East’s largest church. The rock has been carved with reliefs depicting the life of the Virgin and this local saint.
The Church of the Cave is one of Cairo’s most magnificent attractions. The Mamluk Necropolis, or City of the Dead, is located behind Al-Azhar Park, at the foot of Mokattam’s hills.
Thousands of people reside there, amid the numerous graves and mausoleums. But it is because it is the most severe effect of many citizens’ housing troubles in Cairo. So it draws many people, some on organised tours.
Heliopolis Quarter, Cairo
However, a Belgian businessman and Egyptologist developed Heliopolis (not to be confused with Ancient Egypt’s capital) (Baron Empain). The contemporary megalopolis swamped a northeastern Cairo neighbourhood.
The Baron’s Palace, the International Football Stadium (capacity 75,000), and 16 mosques and temples of all religions, notably the Coptic Cathedral of St. Mark, are located here. It’s also close Cairo Airport.
It is certainly the most important, a museum worth seeing. Though no Pharaonic antiquities exist near Cairo (Giza is an administrative city), Egyptologists will flock to this place. The Louvre in Paris, the British Museum in London, and the Egyptian Museum in Turin or Berlin house the best examples of that culture’s art.
But none can match the world-class offerings of this museum. And it still shrank! Many of its treasures have been moved to the Great Egyptian Museum of Giza, which we shall cover momentarily.
Please note that due to the move of items to the Great Egyptian Museum, several rooms may be totally reorganised. This is a must-see list for any trip:
Characters: queens, pharaohs, etc.
Sphinx of Hetepheres II, Dyedefra IV’s wife (Ancient Empire) Cheops, IV dynasty pharaoh (Ancient Empire) King Chephren (IV dynasty, Ancient Empire) from Giza’s Temple of the Valley Pharaoh Mycerinus (IVth dynasty, Ancient Empire), flanked by Hathor and Cinopolis’ nomo goddess.
A Vth Dynasty nobleman in wood (Old Empire) Pen I, 6th Dynasty, Cu (Old Empire) Bust of Akhenaton: portrait of the XVIIIth dynasty (New Empire) pharaoh, illustrating his aesthetic and iconographic modifications.
Psusenes I (XII dynasty) (Third Intermediate Period).
etchings and reliefs
Stele of Merenptah: sculpted in 1210 BC by Amenhotep III to commemorate his victory in Canaan. Historical significance derives from the first known Israelites.
In light of the new royal mummy display at the National Museum of Egyptian Civilization (see below), some of the following may be relocated.
Sarcophagus from tomb KV55 of 18th dynasty pharaoh Akhenaton (New Empire) King Ramses II Mummy of 18th dynasty queen-pharaoh (New Empire) Mummy of Thutmose II (New Empire) Mummy of Seti I (New Empire)
Amenemhat III’s pyramidion topped the Black Pyramid of Dahshur (Middle Empire).
Since more Egyptian museums have emerged in recent years, they too deserve a place in this section of Cairo museums. The National Museum of Egyptian Civilization opened in al-Fustat in 2017. He wants to educate the complete Egyptian civilization, not just Ancient Egypt.
It accomplishes so by employing over 50,000 artefacts from the Archaic, Pharaonic, Greco-Roman, Coptic, Byzantine, Medieval, and Modern Islamic eras to do so. Add to this the opening of the Great Egyptian Museum, a global institution. It’s 2 km from Giza’s necropolis Giza gets its due.
OTHER MUSEUMS IN
Instead than spending a whole day at the Egyptian Museum, here are some other things to do in Cairo:
Museum of Islamic Art: near the Abdeen Palace, but off the beaten path. But take a look. Early twentieth century mosque artworks were concealed from European “treasure hunters.” Some of the materials used in the exhibit include bone and glass.
Gayer-Anderson In general, he was a fan of Egyptian culture. Intricately decorated and maintained interior of two typical sixteenth-century residences. Persia, Byzantium, Syria Egyptian artefacts, pottery and wooden furniture are on display.
Bayt al-Suhaymi: a typical Cairo residential house near the Al-Aqmar Mosque. So it’s another great place to go in Islamic Cairo for history buffs. It is currently a museum with period décor and everyday items.
Saladin Citadel Military Museum In addition to Egyptian army costumes and weaponry, it boasts lovely chambers. One of Saladin’s Citadel’s collections is dedicated to this security agency and its investigations. The National Railway Museum is near the main station.
Remembering the days when our nation had the first railway line in Africa is fun. For example, the Suez Canal Mokhtar Museum’s four-seater locomotive: This museum honours Mahmoud Mokhtar, the country’s father of modern sculpture. Nearly 100 marble, bronze, and granite sculptures are on show.
Modern Egyptian Art Museum in Gezira The avant-garde art lover’s mecca in Cairo, featuring hundreds of paintings and sculptures. They include Mahmoud Said and Inji Aflatoun.
Ali Fahmy, nobleman and military leader, lived in Aisha Fahmy in Zamalek. On the other hand, the stunning interior décor is the major feature of the museum restored in 2017. Islamic Ceramics Museum in Prince Ibrahim’s Palace.
It is devoted to one of Islam’s greatest achievements. The Manial Palace, built in the early twentieth century, has themed rooms with Egyptian, Moroccan, Syrian, and Persian objects, decorations, and displays.
Information on Cairo
Final views on Cairo: getting there, getting about, and tourist information.
It is only possible to fly to Cairo because of its peculiar position. Cairo is a major international gateway, as stated in ‘How to Get to Egypt’. They may go to Lower Egypt or take a Nile cruise.
Passengers arrive in Cairo regularly, either to begin their trip in Egypt or to make a layover at another airport. So many alternatives, all centred on Cairo International Airport. These are its main direct connections, which you may use to compare your options, however they may change with time or season:
Europe: Madrid, Athens, Bergamo, Milan, Rome, Paris, Malta, Moscow, Domodedovo, Vienna, London, Sofia, Amsterdam, Berlin, Frankfurt, Munich, Brussels, Budapest, Copenhagen, Dublin, Geneva, Zurich, Larnaca, Bucharest, Kiev, Budapest (Ukraine) NY, DC, TO (Canada) Saudi Arabia: Aqaba (Jordan), Tel Aviv (Israel), Kuwait, Seoul (South Korea), Baku (Azerbaijan) (Yemen) Abidjan (Ivory Coast), Abuja (Nigeria), Lagos (Nigeria), Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), Asmara (Eritrea), Casablanca (Morocco), Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania), Douala (Cameroon), Entebbe (Uganda), Juba (South Sudan), Kigali (Rwanda) (Rwanda),
The Heliopolis airport is well connected to the city. Buses to Abbasia and Tahrir Square are available but unreliable. Preferably A, B, C, or D cabs or shuttle buses. The travel by car is uncomplicated through the El Orouba highway, but be patient as traffic congestion is possible. Metro station coming to the airport (Line 3).
Cairo travel guide
- Find out what to see and do in Cairo, how to get about, and what activities are scheduled during your stay. The primary three are:
- The Pyramids Office is in Giza, opposite the Mena House Hotel, but also in Cairo.
- It never hurts to have some Cairo emergency phone numbers ready (02). Them:
- 02122. There is a tourist police squad that works hard to assist guests.
- Hours vary by museum and establishment, but are generally 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. Sunday through Thursday, as Friday is a Muslim holy day.
- If your country requires a Covid test, you may locate one in Cairo here.